The operation field of an instruction specifies the operation to be performed. This operation will be executed on some data which is stored in computer registers or the main memory. The way any operand is selected during the program execution is dependent on the addressing mode of the instruction. The purpose of using addressing modes is as follows:

  1. To give the programming versatility to the user.
  2. To reduce the number of bits in addressing the field of instruction.

Types of Addressing modes:

Immediate Mode: In this mode, the operand is specified in the instruction itself. …


In computer graphics, the term “Zoom is referred as a function, focuses on a particular portion or part of an image and also enlarging the image’s size for greater details.”

In windows in GUI (Graphical user interface), the term “zoom can be defined as the maximization of the size of the image.” In Apple computers, we use a box to increase the size of the window or image called “Zoom box.” The process of zooming represents the pixels instead of scan lines.

There are following zooming processes:

  • Zoom In: It is aprocess to compress the size of an image. …

“Panning is a process or photographic technique that is used to combine slow shutter speed with camera movement to make a speed sense around the moving object.”

We can define panning as a way to keep the main object in focus and blurring the background. The word panning is derived from ‘panorama’ that indicates a broad view. In other words, panning is a device used for constantly exposing and including off-screen space into the image.

If we talk about video technology, Panning is defined as horizontal scrolling of pictures expand over the display. In 3D modeling, panning is referred as…


The process of selecting and viewing an image with different views, called windowing.

All the objects in the real world have a size. We can measure the size and location of an object by the unit.

For Example-We use the meter unit to measure both size and the location of the object.

When we represent the image of an object on the screen, then we use the screen coordinate system. The screen coordinate system is used to define the location of the object. When we select the screen coordinate system, then the image can be displayed on the screen.

“The…


We can denote shearing with ‘SHx,’ ‘SHy,’ and ‘SHz.’ These ‘SHx,’ ‘SHy,’ ‘SHz’ are called “Shearing factor.”

The basic difference between 2D and 3D Shearing is that the 3D plane also includes the z-axis.


The Reflection is a mirror image of the original object. We can differentiate 2D and 3D reflection by adding Z-axis. The Z-axis shows the depth of the surface. In the Reflection process, the size of the object does not change.

We can represent Reflection by using the following three ways-

  1. Reflection along with xy Plane: In the xy plane reflection, the value of z is negative.

x1 = x0

y1 = y0

z1 = z0

Matrix of 3D Reflection-


The 2D and 3D scaling are similar, but the key difference is that the 3D plane also includes the z-axis along with the x and y-axis.

In scaling, we can expend or compress the size of any object. We can apply scaling on the object by multiplying the original coordinates with scaling factors.

The term scaling factor is used to define whether the size of the object is increased or decreased. We can represent the scaling factor by ‘Sx’ for the x-axis, ‘Sy’ for the y-axis, and ‘Sz’ for the z-axis.

The increment and decrement of an object is depends…


The 3D rotation is different from 2D rotation. In 3D Rotation we also have to define the angle of Rotation with the axis of Rotation.

For Example-Let us assume,

The initial coordinates of an object = (x0, y0, z0)

The Initial angle from origin = ?

The Rotation angle = ?

The new coordinates after Rotation = (x1, y1, z1)

In Three-dimensional plane we can define Rotation by following three ways

  1. X-axis Rotation: We can rotate the object along x-axis. We can rotate an object by using following equation-

X1 = x0

Y1 = y0 cos?z0 x sin?

Z1…


A 3DTranslation process contains the x-axis, y-axis, and z-axis. We can move any object from one place to another without changing the shape of the object.

For Example-

Translation of a Point: If we want to translate a point from P (x0, y0, z0) to Q (x1, y1, z1), then we have to add Translation coordinates (Tx, Ty, Tz) with original coordinates.

We can also represent the 3D Translation in matrix form-


We can denote shearing with ‘SHx’ and ‘SHy.’ These ‘SHx’ and ‘SHy’ are called “Shearing factor.”

We can perform shearing on the object in two ways-

  1. Shearing along x-axis: In this, wecan store the y coordinate and only change the x coordinate. It is also called “Horizontal Shearing.”

We can represent Horizontal Shearing by the following equation-

X1 = X0 + SHx. Y0

Y1 = Y0

We can represent Horizontal shearing in the form of matrix

Homogeneous Coordinate Representation: The 3 x 3 matrix for Horizontal Shearing is given below-

Amansingh Javatpoint

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